TB-500 vs. BPC-157 | The A-Z Guide

tb-500 vs bpc-167

TB 500 vs. BPC-157 – which ​is the best peptide for healing?

 

​Amongst bodybuilders and biohackers​, both research peptides are known for their ability to heal injuries. 

 

​In many cases, the pronounced effects experienced by “test subjects” worldwide are ​almost too good to be true.

 

This is because these peptides  deliver results unlike those seen in traditional avenues of treatment, such as prescription medications and surgical treatment.

 

So what’s the deal with BPC-157 vs. TB-500, you may ask? Are they the best healing peptides around? 

 

Before we can discuss how people use these peptides for healing, let’s take a look at what research peptides are.

Buy TB/BPC Blend from the #1 online Peptides vendor in the world: Peptides Sciences

Buy TB/BPC Blend from the #1 online Peptides vendor in the world: Peptides Sciences

P.S: This is not medical or legal advice. This is strictly for entertainment purposes. We are not doctors – nor lawyers. All information below is presented for use on “test subjects” only. Not for human consumption. Please read my disclaimer.

What are Research Peptides?

For those of you who don’t know, here’s a brief explanation of what peptides are [1]:

“Peptides are sequences of molecules called amino acids. There are many varieties of amino acids, including 20 naturally occurring building blocks of proteins. 

Peptides of precise sequences may occur naturally in the body, but they may also be produced synthetically or using recombinant DNA technology in bacteria and other living systems. 

With their highly diverse sequence-dependent shapes and chemical and biological properties, these molecules are used to treat a variety of diseases, and applications for new peptide drug products are increasing”

A “dipeptide” is a sequence of two amino acids, a “tripeptide” is a sequence of three amino acids, and so on. 

(In the eyes of the FDA, 40 or fewer amino acids in a sequence is categorized as a peptide)

Peptides are much smaller than proteins, which is why they do not fold into complex three-dimensional structures once they are synthesized by the body. 

Not only are they far easier and cheaper to synthesize, but their tiny structure allows them to target receptors and biomolecules which are inaccessible to purely synthetic drugs [2]. 

As of this writing, there are currently 494 peptide products which have been approved by the FDA to treat various diseases, such as [3]:

  • Cancer

  • Genetic disorders

  • Infectious disease

  • Cardiovascular problems

  • Weakened immune system

  • Respiratory disorders

  • Eye disorders

  • Neurodegenerative problems

  • Poor hormonal health

  • Bone disorders

Notice how outcomes such as enhanced fat loss, improved lean muscle gain, and cognition are not featured on this list. 

This is because the FDA has not approved any peptides for those specific conditions. 

So what are research peptides, then?


Research peptides are simply the specific peptide products used in animal studies, cell cultures and human clinical trials used to evaluate their safety and efficacy for an intended therapeutic purpose.


These are manufactured by scientific laboratories at the highest purity possible, thereby ensuring there are no impurities or contaminants. 


Two research peptides which have gained popularity in recent years are TB-500 and BPC-157. 


Famous biohacker Ben Greenfield has written extensively about both of them, featuring them in his new book Boundless [4]:

“I’ve personally used peptides BPC-157 and TB-500 to enhance healing and recovery. “…BPC-157 also accelerates wound healing and, via interaction with the nitric oxide system, protects endothelial tissue and builds blood vessels”

“…TB-500 can be injected in or near any damaged muscle site and sore or injured joint with surprising healing effects”

Why would he promote both BPC-157 and TB-500 as the best healing peptides for people to use?

To answer this question, let’s explore the background of each peptide and what the science has to say about their supposed therapeutic benefits.

BPC-157 TB-500

What is TB-500?

TB-500 is the synthetic derivative of the naturally occurring Thymosin Beta-4, a peptide consisting of 43 amino acids that is naturally produced in the thymus gland and encoded by the TMSB4X gene.

It is location in every cell of your body except for red blood cells. 

Thymosin Beta-4 is naturally produced by the thymus gland when the body is injured, and it is also involved in creating new blood vessels [5]. 

For these two reasons, TB-500 is considered to be an integral part of the body’s natural healing process for wounds and damaged tissues. 

A medical presentation given on immune-modulating peptides compiled some of the benefits derived by Thymosin Beta-4 usage in animals [6]:

  • Repair of ​soft tissue such as muscle, tendons and ligaments

  • Improved heart health

  • Effective at treating eye injuries

  • Spinal cord injuries

  • Anti-inflammatory effects

  • Reduces the damage done by concussions and traumatic brain injury

TB-500’s main mechanism of action involves the upregulation of actin, a cellular protein which aids in muscle contraction and keeps the structure of cells intact [7].

But due to the body secreting Thymosin Beta-4 in small amounts, experimental biohackers came up with the idea of injecting it in larger amounts to accelerate the healing process.

Numerous “test subjects” I’ve spoken to have commented on TB-500’s usefulness for treating muscle, joint, tendon and ligament injuries.

While the number of available human clinical trials are disappointing, this has not stopped entities  like WADA and USADA from banning the use of TB-500 in competitive sports [8].

So clearly, TB-500 is effective enough to grab the attention of doping agencies who want to stop players from having an unfair advantage. 

But what does the science have to say about the anecdotal results claimed by “test subjects” who use TB-500?

Benefits of Thymosin Beta-4

If you look at PubMed, there are roughly 860 studies conducted on the benefits of Thymosin Beta-4 since 1981 (as of this writing).

Thymosin Beta-5 may be one of the best healing peptides around, but it can do so much more. 

Thymosin Beta-4 Is An Effective Anti-Inflammatory Agent

Chronic inflammation is a root cause of many severe injuries, which is why scientists work tirelessly to reduce it as a means of speeding up the healing process [9]:

“Many chronic wounds are the result of chronic inflammation. 

In contrast to adult wound healing, the early gestation fetus displays a remarkable ability to heal wounds without scarring. Fetal wounds heal rapidly and are characterized by a relative lack of inflammation”

Thymosin Beta-4 has been tested thoroughly in rats, and has been found to treat several types of inflammatory disorders:
  • Alcohol-induced liver injury [10]
  • Rheumatoid arthritis [11]
  • Several eye diseases, including dry eye [12]

While the mechanism behind this is uncertain, it is clear that Thymosin Beta-4 can simultaneously downregulate pro-inflammatory biomolecules while upregulating anti-regulating factors [13].

Thymosin Beta-4 Can Repair Various Forms Of Heart Damage

Cardiovascular health is one of the few areas where Thymosin Beta-4 has been deemed safe and effective in humans. 

In humans, elevated Thymosin Beta-4 levels are associated with improvement of symptoms in ischemic heart failure [14]. 

 

Another pilot study involving patients who had a heart attack found that using Thymosin Beta-5 for 6 months led to repair and regeneration of damaged heart tissue [15].

This is not surprising when you consider how Thymosin Beta-4 was previously shown to provide this therapeutic benefit in cellular cultures and experimental studies with rats [16, 17].

Thymosin Beta-4 Shows Great Potential For Healing Multiple Injuries

These are the studies research subjects will often quote when vouching for the regenerative potential of Thymosin Beta-4.

The majority of these studies are done in rats, with very few clinical trials being done on humans:

  • Restoring biochemical movement to ligament injuries [18]
  • Accelerated healing of ulcers [19]
  • Healing skin wounds without any side effects or observable toxicity [20]
  • Successfully treating burn wounds [21]

Therefore, it is advisable to be cautious should you choose to use Thymosin Beta-4 for these purposes.

But how does BPC-157 stack up in the “TB-500 vs. BPC-157” battle?

BPC-157 TB-500

What is BPC-157? 

First, let’s discuss what BPC-157 is, how it works and why it’s always included on any list of peptides for healing.  

BPC-157 (the “BPC” stands for “Body Protection Compound”) is a synthetic peptide that’s 15 amino acids long. 

It is derived from the biologically active sequence of a peptide which is found in the gut and was first isolated in gastric juices in 1991.

In the medical presentation quoted earlier, scientists have discovered the following therapeutic benefits of BPC-157 [6]:

  • Repairs and maintains optimal gastrointestinal tract function

  • Stabilizes high and low blood pressure

  • Uniformly improves blood circulation by increasing expression of nitric oxide and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

  • Leads to functional recovery after an MCL tear

BPC-157 has also been observed to demonstrate healing properties in skin wounds, muscle, tendon, ligament and bone injuries within rat studies [22].

So much like TB-500, BPC-157 has been used by athletes and bodybuilders to recover from injuries within a few weeks.

This is extraordinary when you consider that the body’s natural healing process would normally take a few months!

While BPC-157 has not been officially banned by doping organizations, there’s a good chance you would be disqualified if you used it prior to any competition. 


This should tell you about the efficacy of this research peptide.

So as of this writing, BPC-157 is a “grey market” drug which has only been definitively studied in animals. 


But are there any other scientifically proven benefits of BPC-157 which extend beyond recovery and repair?

Benefits of BPC-157

Even though BPC-157 is widely regarded as one of the best peptides for healing, it has shown therapeutic promise in other domains of health.

However, BPC-157 has not been as extensively researched as TB-500, with only 131 papers published on the peptide since 1992.

Here’s what the science has to say about the benefits of using BPC-157!

BPC-157 Can Counteract The Side Effects Of Other Medications

Often times, commonly prescribed medications for certain conditions come with some inevitable and undesirable side effects.

Fortunately, BPC-157 could potentially be used alongside these drugs to counteract the side effects while conferring the benefits of said drugs:

  • Reduces the stomach lesions induced by taking haloperidol or cyclophosphamide (the former treats schizophrenia, and the latter is a chemotherapy drug) [23]

  • Heals the degree and severity of neurotoxicity induced by methamphetamine (i.e. meth) [24]

  • Reverses the toxic side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as seizures and hypotension [25]

BPC-157 Improves Gut Health

A comprehensive 2017 done by Croatian researchers found multiple studies tying BPC-157 to optimal gut health [26]:

“In clinical trials without side effects, LD1 not achieved…

BPC 157 healing in gastrointestinal tract, and particularly the healing of the extragastrointestinal tissues (i.e., skin/tendon/ligament/muscle/bone; nerve; cornea/ brain) were referred throughout its integrative capabilities (i.e., ulcerative colitis/multiple sclerosis model equally counteracted), native in gastrointestinal tract, stability in human gastric juice (and thereby, strong efficacy and applicability)”

The same authors also made the same observation in a 2012 review, where BPC-157 was able to lower gut inflammation and reduce complications associated with inflammatory bowel disease [27].

BPC-157 Heals Multiple Injuries And Wounds

BPC-157 is on the cusp of being proven as a multi-purpose regenerative peptide.

Here is the research amassed to date in animal studies which prove this:

  • Increased tissue regeneration in skin wounds of diabetic mice [28]

  • Regenerates muscle in cut-up quadriceps muscle [29]

  • Uniformly heals an abnormal absence of bone tissue without excessive growth or deformation of original structure [30]

Best Healing Peptides? | TB-500 vs. BPC-157

The showdown of TB-500 vs. BPC-157 begins…is one superior, or do they both complement each other? 

To be fair, we are not the first ones to suggest the idea of combining BPC-157 and TB-500 together.

There are several testimonials praising both of them as the best healing peptides, such as this Reddit user who was suffering from a painful shoulder injury [31]:

“I've had severe shoulder injuries for about 10 years now. 3 years ago I went to see a shoulder surgeon and was told that I had rotator cuff tear but so much arthritis it was never going to be pain free and for the past 2 years I've been getting cortisone injections every 90 days in my left shoulder.

I decided to give bpc-157 and tb-500 a go. I'm using 250mcg of bpc-157 2x daily. After only 4 days I'm 100% pain free! It's like a miracle drug!”

A doctor even wrote about his experiences with using BPC-157 and TB-500 in combination to treat his 86-year-old father, who had end-stage kidney failure [32]:

“Dr. Cleaver’s father was able to return home in August 2019 [treatment started on June 10, 2019]. His grip strength, gait and general strength were the best he has been in years. He returned to wood working (building furniture). He lifts weights and uses an exercise bike every day. His chronic lower back pain has mostly disappeared”“Dr. Cleaver’s father was able to return home in August 2019 [treatment started on June 10, 2019]. His grip strength, gait and general strength were the best he has been in years. He returned to wood working (building furniture). He lifts weights and uses an exercise bike every day. His chronic lower back pain has mostly disappeared”

This same doctor used the dual combination of research peptides to treat a 51-year-old man whose heart function had significantly deteriorated and needed a transplant:

“Within only three weeks this patient’s shortness of breath disappeared. His ejection fraction, a measure of left heart chamber contraction normalized. He felt energy and no longer needed two pillows to sleep. Due to his improvement his doctor took him off the heart transplant list.”

But all of this is getting in the way of the main question…


What are the similarities and differences between TB-500 and BPC-157?

The Similarities Between TB-500 And BPC-157

These synthetic peptides for healing have been successfully used by my “test subjects” to treat numerous tissue injuries: Bone, joint, muscle, ligament and tendon. 

There is some debate about which peptide is better for a specific kind of injury, but it is usually specific to an individual and the nature of their injury.

Either way, BPC-157 and TB-500 both exert powerful healing effects.

There are two primary reasons for this:

  • Both research peptides have anti-inflammatory properties

  • Both research peptides promote angiogenesis (i.e. the formation of new blood vessels)
Some researchers contend that TB-500 and BPC-157 increase blood circulation by different mechanisms, but the end result is the same. 

The Differences Between TB-500 And BPC-157

However, there are some obvious differences between these research peptides. 

TB-500 has a systemic effect, which means you can heal an injury regardless of where you make the injection.

BPC-157 has a localized effect, and so you must inject the peptide in the site of injury (or near it) for enhanced recovery.

TB-500 works to distribute actin, whereas BPC-157 is directly responsible for increasing actin production [33]. 

This is purely anecdotal, but my “test subjects” insist TB-500 is a bit better for treating muscle injuries while BPC-157 has the edge on reducing inflammation. 

Keep in mind that the only way to definitively prove the difference between TB-500 and BPC-157 would be to conduct a large-scale clinical trial in which the same type of injury is being treated.

You would have to repeat this trial over and over again for each kind of injury.

Only then could you say something like “BPC-157 is better for treating bone injuries, whereas TB-500 is superior for muscle injuries.”

And even with this data, every user will ultimately respond in a different way due to their unique biochemistry. 

But one thing is clear: BPC-157 and TB-500 do not counteract one another.

If anything, anecdotal evidence shows that they work synergistically to speed up the healing process and further accelerate the rate of recovery.

Peptides For Healing | Recommended Dosing/Cycle 

When it comes to TB-500 vs. BPC-157, there are some important differences to know about if you want to use them together.

With regards to dose, all you need to do is combine the optimal dose for BPC-157 with the best dose for TB-500.

So you would have something like this:

BPC-157: Inject 250 mcg intramuscularly, once in the morning on an empty stomach and once again right before bed.

TB-500: Inject 2-4 mg intramuscularly, twice a week in evenly spaced doses (ex. Monday and Thursday).

(We recommend an intramuscular injection for both peptides as our “test subjects” typically experience the best results from doing so)

Run the above protocol for 4-8 weeks or until the injury is fully healed. 

It’s really that simple – due to the synergistic nature of these research peptides, there is no need to “load” them at a higher dose. 

However, recall how TB-500 works systemically while BPC-157 works locally. 

You will want to inject BPC-157 as close to the injured area as possible, while TB-500 can be injected into any other muscle of your body.

So if you had a bicep injury, BPC-157 goes in the bicep and TB-500 can go in your buttocks. 

One positive outcome of injecting this way is that you can frequently rotate the site of TB-500 injections without developing severe redness. 

I would highly recommend using an evenly mixed peptide blend of BPC-157 and TB-500 if you don’t want to buy each peptide separately.

Since they will be equally dosed, you don’t have to do as much math to calculate the dosage for both peptides via a reputable calculator [34].

Fair warning: You WILL be using much higher doses of BPC-157 than normal if you go down the mixed peptide route, so you’ll need 1-2 injections per week at most.

You also want to have the essential materials for injections handy, such as high-quality bacteriostatic water, sterile needles, and clean vials to hold the reconstituted solution.

How to Order Research Peptides Online

You don’t want to waste time buying the best healing peptides you’ve ever come across.

The only place you should be ordering your research peptides from is a legitimate vendor with a stellar reputation from third-party reviews and ruthless dedication to product quality. 

Your payment information should always be safe, and you should be protected from customs seizures with a money-back guarantee.

So far, I’ve only found one vendor which satisfies all of the above and does so much more.


Whether you want to buy BPC-157 online, buy TB-500 alone, or get a good blend of TB-500 and BPC-157, look no further than Peptide Sciences.


On top of being the #1 place to legally buy research peptides online, there are several reasons why Peptide Sciences is worth your hard-earned money:

  • Unbeatable Customer Service: The speed and professionalism of their customer support desk is unparalleled. Whether you contact them by email or phone, all of your questions and concerns will be immediately answered.

  • More Than One Way To Pay: Cryptocurrency, credit card, electronic cheque, third-party apps like Venmo and Apple Pay…whatever your payment preferences are, Peptide Sciences can facilitate them.

  • The Highest-Quality Peptides You’ll Ever Find: Every peptide is 100% USA-made and exceeds 99% purity. Numerous high-performance tests are done to verify the accuracy and potency of each research peptide. Peptide Sciences meets brutally strict quality control standards, as their products are used in animal studies and clinical trials.

  • Shipping Prices Are Very Fair: Peptide Sciences charges a flat $15 fee for shipping, but waives it if your order is under $200. Bulk discounts are also available if you are buying several bottles at once.

  • Fast And Secure Delivery: Shipping takes place 24 hours after your purchase. Expect your order to arrive within 2-3 business days (7-10 days if you live outside of the US). They ship to over 170 countries!

  • TFA-Free: All peptides created and sold by Peptide Sciences are 100% TFA-free! Trifluoroacetic acid is found in many of the peptides from low quality vendors who import from China. While not getting to deep into the science here, TFA can be exceptionally dangerous.

Combined with solid prices for their products and several informational articles, Peptide Sciences is your go-to stop for all of your peptide needs.

Side Effects and Safety Concerns?

Are there any side effects of TB-500 you should know about? Any dangerous BPC-157 side effects reported by research subjects? 

If you’re going to use the best healing peptides around, you deserve to know what you’re getting into.

Here’s the good news: There has yet to be any reported side effects or toxic events in any of the studies conducted on TB-500 or BPC-157. 

So if you’re pitting BPC-157 vs. TB-500 to see which one is more dangerous, you can put your worries to rest. 

Any side effects one may experience are typical of any peptide injected into the body: Nausea, headache, dizziness, and slight redness/pain at the site of injection. 

With either peptide, your body will need a few days to adjust to the regular injections. But after that, any minor side effects you encounter will quickly disappear. 

This observation was consistent across any “test subject” I have ever talked to, and they were all using the proper dosage for each research peptide. 

They also used the purest form of TB-500 and/or BPC-157 they could get their hands on. Thus, they never suffered any adverse events due to peptide contamination. 

And as for the cancer scare? It is unproven with TB-500 or BPC-157. 

For every study you find purporting a link between either peptide and the progression of cancer cells, you’ll find 1-2 studies which claim the exact opposite. 

TB-500 and BPC-157 are not proven carcinogens, nor are they proven anti-cancer agents.

Much more research will need to be done on this topic before any final conclusions can be reached.

BPC-157 vs. TB-500 | Verdict

 TB-500 vs. BPC-157?

 

Both of these research peptides are winners when it comes to their regenerative properties. 

 

The differences between TB-500 and BPC-157 are almost meaningless, to the point where they are insignificant.

 

They are called the “best healing peptides” for a reason – accelerated healing and injury recovery with virtually no downsides.

 

You can use either one on its own, or combine both of them to become pain-free and injury-free within a much shorter period of time. 

 

And remember: Any benefits discussed in relation to TB-500 and BPC-157 are entirely speculative, as there are an insufficient amount of studies done in human subjects.

Buy TB/BPC Blend from our #1 recommended vendor...

References

  1. Impact Story: Developing the Tools to Evaluate Complex Drug Products: Peptides. Retrieved March 28, 2020. fda.gov

  2. Peptides Emerging As A Reliable Source of Therapeutic Agents. Retrieved March 29, 2020. marketwatch.com

  3. THPdb: A database of FDA approved therapeutic peptides and proteins. Retrieved March 27, 2020. webs.iiitd.edu.in

  4. Greenfield, Ben. (2020). Boundless: Upgrade Your Brain, Optimized Your Body & Defy Aging. Page 525.

  5. Nemolato S, Van Eyken P, Cabras T, et al. Expression pattern of thymosin beta 4 in the adult human liver. Eur J Histochem. 2011;55(3):e25. doi:10.4081/ejh.2011.e25

  6. Immune Modulating Peptides. Retrieved March 30, 2020. nevadaosteopathic.org.

  7. Chopp M, Zhang ZG. Thymosin β4 as a restorative/regenerative therapy for neurological injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Expert Opinion Biol Ther. 2015;15 Suppl 1:S9-12. doi: 10.1517/14712598.2015.1005596

  8. Essendon supplements scandal: TB4 was always banned, says ASADA. Retrieved February 27, 2020. theage.com.au

  9. Rosique RG, Rosique MJ, Farina Junior JA. Curbing Inflammation in Skin Wound Healing: A Review. Int J Inflam. 2015;2015:316235. doi:10.1155/2015/316235

  10. Shah R, Reyes-Gordillo K, Cheng Y, et al. Thymosin β4 Prevents Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Fibrosis in Ethanol- and LPS-Induced Liver Injury in Mice. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:9630175. doi:10.1155/2018/9630175

  11. Kim KS, Yang HI. Thymosin β4 in rheumatoid arthritis: Friend or foe. Biomed Rep. 2017;7(3):205–208. doi:10.3892/br.2017.952

  12. Sosne G, Qiu P, Christopherson PL, Wheater MK. Thymosin beta 4 suppression of corneal NFkappaB: a potential anti-inflammatory pathway. Exp Eye Res. 2007;84(4):663–669. doi:10.1016/j.exer.2006.12.004

  13. Wang YY, Zhu QS, Wang YW, Yin RF. Thymosin Beta-4 Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus Enhances Human Nucleus Pulposus Cell Proliferation and Reduces Cell Apoptosis and Senescence. Chin Med J (Engl). 2015;128(11):1529–1535. doi:10.4103/0366-6999.157686

  14. Choudry FA, Yeo C, Mozid A, et al. Increases in plasma Tβ4 after intracardiac cell therapy in chronic ischemic heart failure is associated with symptomatic improvement. Regen Med. 2015;10(4):403-410. doi:10.2217/rme.15.9.

  15. Thymosin Beta 4 Effective in Treatment of Heart Attack Patients. Retrieved February 7, 2020. regenerx.com

  16. Bjørklund G, Dadar M, Aaseth J, Chirumbolo S. Thymosin β4: a multi-faceted tissue repair stimulating protein in heart injury. Curr Med Chem. 2019 Jul 16. doi: 10.2174/0929867326666190716125456.

  17. Shrivastava S, Srivastava D, Olson EN, et al. Thymosin beta4 and cardiac repair. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1194:87-96. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05468.x.

  18. Xu B, Yang M, Li Z, et al. Thymosin β4 enhances the healing of medial collateral ligament injury in rat. Regul Pept. 2013;184:1-5. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2013.03.026

  19. Treadwell T, Kleinman HK, Crockford D. The regenerative peptide thymosin β4 accelerates the rate of dermal healing in preclinical animal models and in patients. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1270:37-44. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06717.x.

  20. Goldstein AL, Hannappel E, Kleinman HK. Thymosin beta4: actin-sequestering protein moonlights to repair injured tissues. Trends Mol Med. 2005;11(9):421-9.

  21. Kim S, Kwon J. Thymosin beta 4 improves dermal burn wound healing via downregulation of receptor of advanced glycation end products in db/db mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1840(12):3452-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2014.09.013

  22. Sikiric P, Hahm KB, Blagaic AB, Tvrdeic A, Pavlov KH, et al. Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, Robert’s Stomach Cytoprotection/Adaptive Cytoprotection/Organoprotection, and Selye’s Stress Coping Response: Progress, Achievements, and the Future. Gut liver. 2020;14(2):153-167. doi: 10.5009/gnl18490.

  23. BPC-157. Retrieved February 28, 2020. examine.com

  24. Suran J, Kolenc D, Crnic AP, Radic B, Drmic I, et al. The effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in metamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity (1143.11). FASEB J. 2014;28:Suppl1.

  25. Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Rucman R, Turkovic B, Rokotov DS, et al. Toxicity by NSAIDs. Counteraction by stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(1):76-83.

  26. Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Rucman R, Drmic D, Stupnisek M, et al. Stress in Gastrointestinal Tract and Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Finally, do we have a Solution? Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(27):4012-4028. doi:10.2174/1381612823666170220163219.

  27. Sikiric P, Sikiric PS, Seiwerth S, Rucman R, Turkovic B, et al. Effect of Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on Gastrointestinal Tract. Front Gastrointest Res. 2010;30:191-201. doi:10.1159/000338435.

  28. Seveljevic-Jaran D, Cuzic S, Dominis-Kramaric M, Glojnaric I, Ivetic V, et al. Accelerated healing of excisional skin wounds by PL 14736 in alloxan-hyperglycemic rats. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;19(5):266-274.

  29. Staresinic M, Petrovic I, Novinscak T, Jukic I, Pevec D. Effective therapy of transected quadriceps muscle in rat: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157. J Orthop Res. 2006;24(5):1109-1117.

  30. Sebecic B, Nikolic V, Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Sosa T, et al. Osteogenic effect of a gastric pentadecapeptide, BPC-157, on the healing of segmental bone defect in rabbits: a comparison with bone marrow and autologous cortical bone implantation. Bone. 1999;24(3):195-202.

  31. My experience with BPC-157 and TB-500. Retrieved March 31, 2020. R/peptides

  32. Two Clinical Cases Demonstrating the Healing Effects of Peptides. Retrieved March 30, 2020. askdrray.com

  33. Buy BPC-157, TB-500 10mg (Blend). Retrieved April 1, 2020. peptidesciences.com

  34. Peptide Mixing and Dosing Calculator. Retrieved March 20, 2020. http://112.196.20.91/realpeptide/peptide-calculator/

References

  1. Impact Story: Developing the Tools to Evaluate Complex Drug Products: Peptides. Retrieved March 28, 2020. fda.gov

  2. Peptides Emerging As A Reliable Source of Therapeutic Agents. Retrieved March 29, 2020. marketwatch.com

  3. THPdb: A database of FDA approved therapeutic peptides and proteins. Retrieved March 27, 2020. webs.iiitd.edu.in

  4. Greenfield, Ben. (2020). Boundless: Upgrade Your Brain, Optimized Your Body & Defy Aging. Page 525.

  5. Nemolato S, Van Eyken P, Cabras T, et al. Expression pattern of thymosin beta 4 in the adult human liver. Eur J Histochem. 2011;55(3):e25. doi:10.4081/ejh.2011.e25

  6. Immune Modulating Peptides. Retrieved March 30, 2020. nevadaosteopathic.org.

  7. Chopp M, Zhang ZG. Thymosin β4 as a restorative/regenerative therapy for neurological injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Expert Opinion Biol Ther. 201
    5;15 Suppl 1:S9-12. doi: 10.1517/14712598.201
    5.1005596

  8. Essendon supplements scandal: TB4 was always banned, says ASADA. Retrieved February 27, 2020. theage.com.au

  9. Rosique RG, Rosique MJ, Farina Junior JA. Curbing Inflammation in Skin Wound Healing: A Review. Int J Inflam. 2015;2015:316235. doi:10.1155/2015/316235

  10. Shah R, Reyes-Gordillo K, Cheng Y, et al. Thymosin β4 Prevents Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Fibrosis in Ethanol- and LPS-Induced Liver Injury in Mice. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:9630175. doi:10.1155/2018/9630175

  11. Kim KS, Yang HI. Thymosin β4 in rheumatoid arthritis: Friend or foe. Biomed Rep. 2017;7(3):205–208. doi:10.3892/br.2017.952

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